Meningkatkan Ketahanan Usaha Ultra Mikro Terhadap Guncangan Akibat Pandemi di Papua Barat

  • Edy Nasrudin Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan Kementerian Keuangan
  • Rian Andriono Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan Kementerian Keuangan

Abstract

Mobility restrictions to prevent the risk of the Covid-19 pandemic have negatively affected the volume of economic activity. Reflecting on the history of previous economic crises, ultra-micro enterprises have become actors that are able to face changes. However, the long pandemic period makes ultra-micro enterprises unable to run solo and need support. Government support in order to keep ultra-micro enterprises surviving and growing is carried out through a recovery program. This study aims to determine the impact of government policies in maintaining the resilience of ultra-micro enterprises and also measure the effectiveness of ultra-micro financing during the pandemic. The study used survey data gathered from debtors through interviews and analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods. The result showed that the recovery program is able to increase ultra-micro enterprise's resilience, positively impact business development, and also reducing unemployement. However, ultra-micro financing needs to be supported by specific strategies to expanding the reachness and accessibility.

References

Adam, L., Soekarni, M., & Inayah, I. (2021). Indonesia’s Ultra Microcredit Programme. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 38(2), 263-280.
Apriani, R., Putra, P. S., & Selvi, E. (2021). The Impact of The Pandemic in Relaxation Policy of Micro, Small, and Medium (MSMEs) Enterprises in Indonesia. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 11(8), 187-195.
Bahtiar, R. A. (2021). Dampak pandemi covid-19 terhadap sektor usaha mikro, kecil, dan menengah serta solusinya. Bidang Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Publik.
Baker, T. H., & Judge, K. (2020). How to help small businesses survive COVID-19. Columbia Law and Economics Working Paper, 620.
Bank Indonesia Papua Barat. (2020). Laporan Perekonomian Provinsi Papua Barat November 2020. Bank Indonesia: Manokwari
Bank Indonesia Papua Barat. (2021). Laporan Perekonomian Provinsi Papua Barat Agustus 2021. Bank Indonesia: Manokwari
Banu, S., & Suresh, B. (2020). COVID-19 and its impact on micro, small and medium enterprises in India. Mukt Shabd Journal, IX(X), 606–617.
Behera, M., Mishra, S., Mohapatra, N., & Behera, A. R. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): Policy Response for Revival. SEDME (Small Enterprises Development, Management & Extension Journal), 47(3), 213-228.
Blattman, C., Green, E., Annan, J., & Jamison, J. (2014). The returns to cash and microenterprise support among the ultra-poor: A field experiment. Columbia Univ. Work. Pap.
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2020). Hasil Survei Sosial Demografi Dampak Covid-19 Provinsi Papua Barat 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2021). Keadaan Angkatan Kerja di Provinsi Papua Barat Agustus 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2021). Papua Barat Dalam Angka Tahun 2021. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2021). Perekonomian Provinsi Papua Barat Triwulan IV Tahun 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2021). Perekonomian Provinsi Papua Barat Triwulan III Tahun 2021. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
BPS Provinsi Papua Barat. (2021). Profil Industri Mikro dan Kecil Provinsi Papua Barat. Badan Pusat Statistik: Manokwari
Chakraborty, N. (2020), The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on mental health. Program Neurology Psychiatry, 24: 21-24.
Diandra, Lady, & Rahmatullah, Y. F. (2020). Result of Survey on Impact of COVID-19 on Youth Entrepreneurs in Indonesia Entrepreneurs (Issued June 2020- UNDP).
Duflo, E., & Banerjee, A. (2011). Poor economics Vol. 619. PublicAffairs.
Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2009). Gender differences in business performance: evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners survey. Small Business Economics, 33(4), 375-395.
Febrantara, D. (2020). Bagaimana Penanganan UKM Di Berbagai Negara Saat Ada Pandemi Covid-19. DDT Fiscal Research.
Hidayati, R., & Rachman, N. M. (2021). Indonesian Government Policy And Smes Business Strategy During The Covid-19 Pandemic. Niagawan, 10(1), 1-9.
ILO. (2020). The clock is ticking for survival of Indonesian enterprises, jobs at risk-Key findings of the ILO SCORE Indonesia COVID-19 enterprise survey. Research Brief.
Instruksi Gubernur Provinsi Papua Barat Nomor 03 Tahun 2020 tentang Pencegahan Pengendalian Resiko Penularan Infeksi COVID19 di Papua Barat.
Karlan, D., Knight, R., & Udry, C. (2012). Hoping to win, expected to lose: Theory and lessons on micro enterprise development (No. w18325). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Kementerian KUKM. (2017). Penetapan Regulasi Pembiayaan Usaha Ultra Mikro. https://www.ekon.go.id/publikasi/detail/1976/pemerintah-terbitkan-regulasi-pembiayaan-ultra-mikro-umi-melalui-koperasi.
Kementerian KUKM. (2021). UMKM Menjadi Pilar Penting dalam Perekonomian Indonesia. https://ekon.go.id/publikasi/detail/2969/%20umkm-menjadi-pilar-penting-dalam-perekonomian-indonesia
Kennedy, P. S. J. (2021). Evaluation of the COVID-19 Handling Programs and National Economic Recovery in Indonesia. Fundamental Management Journal, 6(1), 21-33.
Kurniawansyah, H., Amrullah, A., Salahuddin, M., Muslim, M., & Nurhidayati, S. (2020). Konsep kebijakan strategis dalam menangani eksternalitas ekonomi dari COVID-19 pada masyarakat rentan di indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(2), 130-139.
Lestari, A. T. W., Irianto, S., & Wardani, W. I. (2020). Harmonizing Rules Micro Small and Medium Enterprises in the Era of the Pandemic Covid19 in Indonesia. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7(11), 642-652.
Maspaitella, M. R., Wurarah, R. N., & Setiawan, H. A. (2019). Mengukur Dampak Belanja Pemerintah Bidang Pendidikan Dan Kesehatan Terhadap Tingkat Kemiskinan Di Papua Barat. JFRES: Journal of Fiscal and Regional Economy Studies, 2(1), 27-33.
Mead, D. C., & Liedholm, C. (1998). The Dynamics of Micro and Small Enterprises in Developing Countries. World Development, 26(1), 61-74.
Megawati, W., & Suliantoro, A. (2021, March). The Effectiveness of National Economic Stimulus as a Countercyclical Policy of Covid-19 Outbreak. In 3rd International Conference of Banking, Accounting, Management and Economics (ICOBAME 2020 (pp. 328-331). Atlantis Press.
Moenardy, D. F., & Sinaga, O. (2021). West Java Trade Diplomacy in Increasing Exports of Micro, Small, And Medium Enterprises (Msmes) In the Covid-19 Pandemic. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 11(6), 1-7.
Moser, C. (1998). The Asset Vulnerability Framework: Reassessing Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies. World Development, 26(1), 1-19.
Mukoffi, A. (2018). Analisis Kebijakan Pemerintah Terhadap Perkembangan Usaha Mikro Kecil Dan Menengah Kabupaten Malang (UMKM). JAMSWAP, 3(2), 63-72.
Mura, P., & Tavakoli, R. (2014). Tourism and social capital in Malaysia. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(1), 28-45.
Pakpahan, A. K. (2020). Covid-19 dan implikasi bagi usaha mikro, kecil, dan menengah. Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, 59-64.
Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Perbendaharaan Nomor PER 25/PB/2018 tentang Petunjuk Teknis Monitoring dan Evaluasi Pembiayaan Ultra Mikro Oleh Instansi Vertikal Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan
Peraturan Direktur Utama Pusat Investasi Pemerintah Nomor PER-05/IP/2020 tentang Tata Cara Pemberian Relaksasi Bagi Penerima Pembiayaan Ultra Mikro Terdampak Pandemi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19).
Peraturan Kementerian Keuangan Nomor 193/PMK.05/2020 tentang Pembiayaan Ultra Mikro
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 23 Tahun 2020 tentang Pelaksanaan Program Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional dalam rangka Mendukung Kebijakan Keuangan Negara untuk Penanganan Pandemi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) dan/atau Menghadapi Ancaman yang Membahayakan Perekonomian Nasional dan/atau Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan Serta Penyelamatan Ekonomi Nasional.
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 43 Tahun 2020 tentang Perubahan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 23 Tahun 2020 tentang Pelaksanaan Program Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional dalam rangka Mendukung Kebijakan Keuangan Negara untuk Penanganan Pandemi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) dan/atau Menghadapi Ancaman yang Membahayakan Perekonomian Nasional dan/atau Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan Serta Penyelamatan Ekonomi Nasional.
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 72 Tahun 2020 tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2020 tentang Perubahan Postur dan Rincian Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara Tahun Anggaran 2020.
Purnama, S., & Reyta, F. (2021, March). Economic Stimulus Policies Implementation and Their Role in Empowering Indonesian SME’s During Covid-19 Pandemic: The Urgently VS Threat. In First International Conference on Science, Technology, Engineering and Industrial Revolution (ICSTEIR 2020) (pp. 171-175). Atlantis Press.
Rini, A., & Arivina, R. (2021). Modal Sosial Sebagai Upaya Keberlangsungan Usaha Ditengah Pandemi Covid-19 (Studi Kasus Pada Debitur Ultra Mikro (UMi) PT. Pegadaian (Persero) Area Lampung). E-Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Udayana, 10(08), 664-673.
Rosa, P., Carter, S., & Hamilton, D. (1996). Gender as a Determinant of Small Business Performance: Insights from a British Study. Small Business Economics, 8(6), 463-478
Singh, A. (2020). What About India's MSME Sector: COVID-19 Pandemic and Indian MSME Sector Outlook. Available at SSRN 3696778.
Sipahi, E. (2020). COVID-19 and MSMEs: A revival framework. Research Journal in Advanced Humanities, 1(2), 7–21.
Sparrow, R., Poel, E., Hadiwidjaja, G., Yumna, A., Warda, N., & Suryahadi, A. (2014). Coping with the Economic Consequences of Ill Health in Indonesia. Health Economics, 23(6), 719-728.
Sugiri, D. (2020). Menyelamatkan usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah dari dampak pandemi Covid-19. Fokus Bisnis: Media Pengkajian Manajemen dan Akuntansi, 19(1), 76-86.
Tripathy, A. (2020). COVID-19 affect and micro, small, and medium enterprises (p. 5). The Times of India.
Tripathy, S., & Bisoyi, T. (2021). Detrimental impact of COVID-19 pandemic on micro, small and medium enterprises in India. Jharkhand Journal of Development and Management Studies, 19(1), 8651–8660.
UU Nomor 2 Tahun 2020 tentang Penetapan Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti UU Nomor 1 Tahun 2020 tentang Kebijakan Keuangan Negara dan Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan untuk Penanganan Pandemi Covid-19 dan/atau dalam rangka Menghadapi Ancaman yang Membahayakan Perekonomian Nasional dan/atau Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan.
UU Nomor 7 Tahun 2021 tentang Harmonisasi Peraturan Perpajakan
Vaisey, S., & Miles, A. (2017). What you can—and can’t—do with three-wave panel data. Sociological Methods & Research, 46(1), 44-67.
WHO (2020, March 11). WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. WHO. https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020
Zimmerman, M. A. (1995). Psychological empowerment: Issues and illustrations. American journal of community psychology, 23(5), 581-599
Statistik Abstract view : 72 times
Statistik PDF Views : 34 times
Published
2022-12-31
How to Cite
NASRUDIN, Edy; ANDRIONO, Rian. Meningkatkan Ketahanan Usaha Ultra Mikro Terhadap Guncangan Akibat Pandemi di Papua Barat. Lensa Ekonomi, [S.l.], v. 16, n. 02, p. 214 - 236, dec. 2022. ISSN 2623-0895. Available at: <https://journal.feb.unipa.ac.id/index.php/lensa/article/view/248>. Date accessed: 05 feb. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.30862/lensa.v16i02.248.